Symbolism and the construciton of political products. Analysis of the political marketing strategies of peruvian president alejandro Toledo by Pedro Patrón Galindo This paper introduces the discussion on how to create symbolical constructions that serve to define the guidelines for discourses, using rhetorical methodology. It stresses two aspects of the relationship between rhetoric and marketing: On the one hand, it attempts to provide a rhetorical approach to political marketing in the construction of politicians image, as products, especially in complex contexts such as a developing country. On the other hand, it analyses the role of pools as a quantitative methodology that provides the basic guidelines (concepts, symbols) for political discourses. The second part of the analysis compares the political marketing strategies of current Peruvian present Alejandro Toledo and former president Alberto Fujimori. The fundamental hypothesis is that Fujimori has been able to position himself, within his discourse-propaganda, as opposed to concepts such as “traditional parties,” “terrorism” and “hyperinflation”. On the contrary, Toledo has not been able to construct a solid character (apart from being opposition to Fujimori), who would be the protagonist in the “history” of solving the real problems of the people, according to the opinion polls: lack of employment, lack of opportunities, and lack of money for the daily expenses. The rhetorical approach, based on Kenneth Burke’s dramatism theory, is useful to understand the construction of the political spectacle, the scene on which all the marketing strategies and tools are supplied. author biography: Pedro Patrón Galindo has a Bachelor’s Degree in Communication form the University of Lima (Peru), and a Master’s Degree in Political Communication from Emerson College, Boston (USA). He has worked at several magazines in Peru as a journalist, as a consultant for several organisations in Lima, Boston and Barcelona, and as a professor at the School of Communication of the Catholic University in Lima, Peru. At the moment he works as a Communication Project Manager in Barcelona Marketing the scottish parliament: whose line is it anyway? By Janet Seaton In comparison with the warmth with which the opening of the new Scottish Parliament was greeted, it has enjoyed a singularly bad press thereafter. Many reasons have been suggested for this, but this paper will focus on the extent to which the Parliament as an institution can, or should, seek to improve its own image. The concept of marketing is now new to public service organisations, but it is new to parliaments, certainly in the UK. Should the Scottish Parliament put resources into marketing itself –what objectives is it trying to achieve? How should it success be measured? If it is legitimate for the Scottish Parliament to market itself, is it possible for it to do that without becoming embroiled in politics, when its very proceedings, and devolution itself, are matters of great political interest and debate? This paper will argue that it is a political paradox. It is impossible to market the Parliament by ignoring the politics, but it is the politics that provides the opportunities for bringing the Parliament into disrepute. The paper will examine some of the way sin which parliamentary staff have sought to solve this conundrum. author biography: A Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, Janet Seaton is a parliamentary reference specialist who worked at the House of Commons Library for over 20 years. In October 1998 she was seconded to the Scottish Office to set up a research and information service for the Scottish Parliament. Janet took up the post of Head of Research and Information Services at the Scottish Parliament on 1st December 2000. She is a member of the Scottish Library and Information Council Management Committee and the Study of Parliament Group. She has a degree in political science, and has written articles and contributed to books on parliament and politics. title: facing the future: young people’s awareness of and attitudes towards the 2001 british general election advertising campaigns Author(s) Dr Janine Dermody and Richard Scullion Email: Abstract: This article presents initial findings from a national survey of ‘potential’ first time voters at the 2001 British General Election. It investigates these young people’s awareness and attitudes towards the advertising used by the main political parties during this election. In analysing the data the authors were particularly interested in examining the claim that political advertising contributes to the sense of malaise witnessed most acutely amongst young people. We found high levels of advertising awareness, however this was coupled with largely unfavourable attitudes towards most of the advertising. Those least interested in the election tended to be exposed to less advertising and yet held the harshest opinions of it. Despite these judgements most young people considered the advertising to be at least as persuasive as its commercial cousins. Not surprisingly the evidence provides a mixed picture in terms the role political advertising plays in the young people’s overall political dispositions. As a familiar discourse advertising offers the political classes an entry point to establish a dialogue with young sections of the electorate. However, for many the political advertising helps reinforce their predilection about politics being something one naturally distrusts. author biography: Janine Dermody is Chair of the Political Marketing special interest group within the Academy of Marketing ( She has carried out independent research on the 2001 British General Election, and published her work in marketing journals. She holds a first degree in Psychology, a masters in marketing and a doctorate in environmental marketing. She lectures at the UK’s newest university – the university of Gloucestershire, where she specialises in consumer psychology, advertising, green, political and non-profit marketing. Richard Scullion is senior Lecturer in marketing communications at Bournemouth University. Active member and secretary of the Academy of Marketing special interest group on Political Marketing. title: selling sinn fein: the political marketing of a party in conflict resolution Author(s) Sean McGough Email: Abstract: This article examines the extent to which Sinn Fein ;has adapted business-marketing concepts and techniques, in order to further its political ends in Ireland. The recent success of Sinn Fein in the Irish Daily elections of 2002 has surprised and confounded many political analysts. This article demonstrates that the success is based upon a marketing strategy and is helping Sinn Fein win political power. Sinn Fein believe that it will eventually lead to them gaining majority rule in a thirty-two county Ireland. Many hope that it is a confirmation of the end of the inks with terrorism and a promise of a future base don peaceful and democratic strategies. author biography: Phd on British policy in Northern Ireland. Research interests include Irish Political parties, Terrorism, International politics and security studies, European studies, the history of the IRA and Sinn Fein. Recent research is on the need for the private, public and academic sectors to formulate a unified counter-terrorist strategy. Title: Political communications and political participation: the production-consumption of political communicaitons and citizen-voters’ propensity to participate in politics Author(s) K. Maloney, C Daymon, B. Richards, R. Scullion Email: Abstract: High public interest today in political communications such as ‘spin’ and in political participation such as electoral turnout suggests that there may be value in exploring the processes by which political messages are produced and consumed, and their interrelationship. It may be that what citizen-voters think of message production influences how they consume political news and publicity (through observing and evaluating), and that the propensity to political participation is subsequently affected. We suggest that there is an alignment of political communications with political participation via their consumption. We offer a model which traces the production of political communications, starting at their origins in the political class, and flowing via political journalism or controlled media to citizen-voters who both observe and evaluate them (i.e. consume them) before, during and after making their political policies choices. We hypothesise that the observation and evaluation of message production and content by political consumers influences their participation levels. Research of this nature into political organisations is relatively rare. Similarly, there is little evidence of investigations into to other aspects highlighted in our model: attitudes by the political class towards political communications, the production of political communications before they reach the media and how they are received by the media, and their consumption by citizen-voters in relation to the propensity to participate in politics. author biography: Christine Daymon Dr Daymon leads the MA Corporate Communication programme at Bournemouth University. Her research focuses on culture, communication and management in the creative and media industries. Kevin Moloney Principal lecturer in communications at Bournemouth University. Author of Lobbyists for Hire (Ashgate, 1996) and Rethinking PR: the Spin and the Substance (Routledge, 2000). Barry Richards Professor of Public Communication in the Bournemouth Media School. Author of The Dynamics of Advertising (Harwood, 2000); has a particular interest in the relationships between political culture and popular culture. Richard Scullion Senior Lecturer in marketing communications at Bournemouth University. Active member and secretary of the Academy of Marketing special interest group on Political Marketing. title: nasty or nice? the natural institute for clinical excellence and technology assessment Author(s) Dr. Mark E. Duckenfield Email: or Abstract: This paper explores the political dynamics that have surround the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) since its creation in 1999. Using theories of political marketing, the research presented here explains the behaviour of NICE in the technology appraisal process as the result of the pressures to pursue different marketing strategies. It finds that organisations can follow multiple strategies of political marketing depending upon the identity of their target audience. The government originally designed NICE to pursue a ‘product-oriented’ strategy based upon its biomedical expertise. However, in the face of resistance from stakeholders (pharmaceutical companies and patient groups) NICE has begun to pursue a more ‘market-oriented’ strategy. Using analysis of the NICE decision-making procedures and an empirical analysis of NICE guidances and appeals decisions, this paper demonstrates how NICE garners information from and is responsive to the interests of its target audiences author biography: Mark Duckenfield is a Senior Research fellow at University College London’s School of Public Policy. He received a PhD in political science from Harvard University for a dissertation on business associations and Economic and Monetary Union. He is currently researching the role of patient groups in the drug approval process. Duckenfield has previously published work his research in West European Politics, German Politics and Studies in Popular Culture. He has also conducted research on Swiss, German and British gold policy and is the editor of a forthcoming collection of historical documents entitled The Monetary History of Gold: A Collection of Documents. title: the management of political brands Author(s) Helmut Schneider Email: Abstract: In contrast to classical marketing, previous research on political marketing has barely considered the branding aspect. This is all the more surprising, given that on the one hand, political parties and their key representatives presumably fulfil the main criteria of an impact-oriented brand as a firmly anchored, consistent perceptual image in the minds of voters. On the other hand, there are many indicators that political brands are of considerable significance for voting decisions. In essence, the importance of brands for voting decisions on the part of the consumers, derives from their branding functions, such as orientation aid in the form of an “information chunk” or risk-reduction function in the sense of a confidence surrogate. Based on the hypothesis that brand management thus constitutes a central challenge for the marketing of political parties, it is appropriate to investigate what approach seems best suited to managing political brands and how these should be formulated. author biography: Dr. Dr. Helmut Schneider (2 doctorates) has been an Associate Professor in the Department of Marketing at the Westfalian Wilhelms University of Muenster. Previously, he was a research assistant in the same Department and until 1996, at the Department of Political Science at the University of Muenster. From 1988 to 1995, he studied Political Science at the University of Muenster with a major in political economy. At the same time, he studied Business Administration with a major in Marketing. IN 1996, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his dissertation on the role of rationality in the economic analysis of politics. In 1999, he was awarded a second doctorate in Business Administration with a dissertation on price management in the services sector. title: not big brand names but corner shops: marketing politics to a disengaged electorate Author(s) Darren G. Lilleker (University of Leicester) and Ralph Negrine (University of Leicester) Email: (or) Abstract: Is there an alternative to New Labour’s model of a centrally-orchestrated and national-centric election campaign? One that has greater appeal to the people and could increase turnout? Drawing on interviews with those active in campaigns ‘on the ground’, this paper argues that the next election could be fought more along the lines of the Liberal Democrat model. This would allow a greater focus on the local context of an election. In marketing terms these developments would mean that the corporate branding will give way to a more individual-centred model of campaigning that draws more on the techniques employed in the U.S.A., where personality politics remain important within the context of elections for senators. Individual candidates will be encouraged to market themselves as high-profile local activists who enter politics to serve the constituency, their loyalty to the party will be downplayed. While this will mean an adjustment, not a specific rejection, of the top-down party model; it is argued that this model is necessary to re-engage the electorate with politics. author biography: Darren G Lilleker completed his PhD at the University of Sheffield in 2001 worked as Research Assistant in the Centre for Mass Communication Research at the University of Leicester and has just taken up a post of Lecturer in the Media School, Bournemouth University. Ralph Negrine is Senior Lecturer in Media and Politics and Director of the Centre for Mass Communication Research at the University of Leicester. He has published widely on the media and British politics. title: higher education: marketing in a quasi-commerical service industry Author(s) Mari Brookes Email: Abstract: The UK Government is promoting Widening Participation and asking Universities to develop their student intake by 50% of 18-30 year-olds by 2010. The financing of these changes is encouraging a marketing emphasis shift, as funding is reduced and alternative revenue methods sought. Traditional marketing of charitable educational institutions sought to ensure sufficient student enrolments for solely government funded core activities. Further marketing is now seen within quasi-commercial activities i.e. the provision of services to externals outside term time via the hiring of a University’s property and resources. This paper investigates the need for a further marketing approach, as Research Consultancies are developed following Government policy changes. Such development would increase the income of Universities and promote collaboration between Education, businesses and community (HEFCE 2002). Promotion of the expertise of relevant departments outside lecture halls and into the halls of commerce, means that Universities will need to use commercial marketing techniques to compete. Using the Comparative Method, this paper looks at the complexity of the issues around US and UK education and their revenue value conflicts, marketing perspectives, and finally the differences in perspectives and expectations between commerce and education. As the matter is current and ongoing, the main form of collecting evidence is through personal interview and the latest media releases. author biography: Mari Brookes is a member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing. The Conference Services Manager of Bath Spa University College, she has just returned from the US where she marketed Education Abroad Programmes to a number of Universities. On her return, she commenced enquiries into the Marketing emphasis shift presently being promoted by the UK Government: Seeking movement from solely Government funded Core Activities, to the additional commercial Consultancies. Witnessing a successfully commercial ‘Professional Development Department’ at San Jose State University, she compared Bath Spa University’s present quasi-commercial activities. With a keen interest to extend her Academic qualifications, Mari will continue research into Quasi-commercial marketing, believing it will play an important role in the future of Education. title: customer-oriented government communication case study: the flemish customer contact centre for public information Author(s) Dave Gelders and Michel Walrave Email:, Abstract: This paper describes the Flemish customer contact centre for government information Vlaamse Infolijn (‘Flemish Infoline’), as an example of customer-oriented communication by the Flanders Authority. The major reason for setting up this service was the complicated institutional framework in Belgium. The origin, definition, evolution and main features of customer contact centres in the profit sector are described. Based on features as strategy, technology and staff, we then study the Vlaamse Infolijn as a particular case in the public sector. Attention will be given to its market- and product-oriented functioning. We demonstrate that appropriate marketing techniques are used. Finally, we analyse how political sales-oriented behaviour intervenes with the centre’s operations. This is illustrated by the controversial abolition of the television and radio license fee in Flanders. Further research on information needs and contact centres, and extension towards one ‘umbrella’ contact centre for government information in Belgium, are recommended. author biography: Dave Gelders achieved in 2000 his Master degree in Communication Sciences summa cum laude at the K.U. Leuven (Belgium). In his Master’s thesis he analysed the strategies and tactics which politicians apply in televised political debates. Currently he is research assistant of the Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders (F.W.O.-Vlaanderen). He is involved in PhD research on the relationship between government information provision and citizens’ information demands. He participated in several Public Management and Public Administration seminars. He is member of the Political Marketing Group (Political Studies Association), and he is member of the Knowledge Centre of the Flemish Association for Government Communication (Kortom) and of the Dutch Association for Government Communication (VVO). Prof. Dr. Michel Walrave is lecturer at the K.U. Leuven and the UFSIA Antwerp. He conducts research, publishes and teaches at national universities and abroad about marketing communication, direct marketing, call centres, e-marketing and the protection of the consumer’s privacy. He works as an advisor for different institutions concerning the application of a privacy policy. He is member of the editorial board of The Journal of Consumer Behaviour and the R.P.OT. Belgium Privacy Journal. He is member of the FiuCom board. title: government advertising and the creation of national myths: the canadian case Author(s) Jonathan Rose Email: RoseJ@Qsilver.QueensU.Ca Abstract: This paper argues that the Canadian federal government uses advertising on a scale and in ways that are unique. First, government advertising in Canada is used to create and develop national myths and symbols, functions not usually performed by government advertising; second, advertising by the federal government has been used to quell Quebec nationalist sympathies; third, advertising has provided a way to by pass the traditional deliberative body of parliament. In chronicling some notable government advertising campaigns, I argue that the Canadian case tells us much about advertising as a component of state marketing. Contrary to Peter Van Ham’s claim that “state branding” is a new phenomenon, in Canada the creation of a branded state has been around since confederation. I examine some of the dilemmas of a government using the grammar of advertising to sell public policies. These include the problem of advertising on contentious issues for which there is no consensus; of conflating marketing with democracy and using a vehicle that is ill-suite to the nuances of statecraft. author biography: Associate Professor. Teaches Canadian politics, political communications and mass media. Published “Making Pictures in our Heads” Government Advertising in Canada (New York: Praeger, 2000) and several journal and book articles on state use of communication. Rose’s current research program involves examining the comparative use of government advertising. title: polls poles apart! the political, research and ethical lessons from the use of opinion polls for & against hunting with dogs. Author(s) Prof Clive Nancarrow (Bristol Business School, UWE), Martin Evans & Dr John Pallister (Cardiff Business School) Email: Abstract: Pressure and advocacy groups use opinion polls to help further political agendas, as in the case of hunting with dogs. The authors evaluate the two types of polls that have featured in the campaigning: “scientific” (representative) polls and “straw” polls. The shortcomings of straw polls are well known but a systematic attempt by a section of a lobby to manipulate straw polls is described raising a number of ethical issues (abuse of the pollster, abuse of legitimate participants and potential harm to the marketing research industry). Theories as to how polls of both types may affect attitudes of the general population are examined and the likelihood of any effects evaluated. A key moderator variable may be whether or not there is a perception of a wide discrepancy in polls commissioned by the two sides of the debate. Reasons for the discrepancy in poll results are explored. The authors’ observations raise questions about the value of polling and the technical and ethical issues the polling industry and professional bodies need to address. author biography: Clive Nancarrow is Professor in Marketing Research at Bristol Business School, UWE. With a psychology background he entered the marketing research industry and has worked on both the agency and client side. He joined UWE as a full time lecturer in marketing research in 1988 but continued to be retained on long term consultancy contracts for companies such as Dell Computer Systems, Seagram Global Brands and Seagram UK and currently NFO WorldGroup. He has given papers at practitioner conferences e.g. ESOMAR and the MRS as well as more academic conferences such as AM. Research interests include opinion polls, methodology, consumer and respondent psychology.” Martin Evans is Senior Teaching Fellow at Cardiff Business School. He previously held professorial posts at the Universities of Portsmouth, Glamorgan and West of England. His industrial experience was with Hawker Siddeley and then as a consultant to a variety of organisations over 25 years. Martin’s specialist areas include marketing research and information, consumer behaviour and direct marketing and he has over 100 publications plus 6 books, mostly in these areas. He is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Marketing and an academic prize winner at the International Marketing Communications Conference and the Academy of Marketing/Institute of Direct Marketing. Dr John Pallister is Head of Marketing and Strategy, Cardiff Business School. His research interests are in the conceptual areas of involvement and innovativeness of consumer decision making more lately in the environment of the internet. Further work is in the area of ethical practice of market researchers using the internet to collect data and more lately in terms of the practice and use of opinion polls by clients and researchers. He has published in numerous academic journals in the above areas. He teaches at postgraduate and undergraduate levels and supervises at PhD level. Over the years has completed numerous client based research projects. title: the product talks: the candidate as product in the political marketing process Author(s) Dr Robbie Mochrie Email: Abstract: Political marketing has generally been understood in terms of the development and promotion of products at a national level by political parties. In this paper, we review the process by which the Labour Party engages in such activity before reviewing the experience of the Labour Party’s candidate in a single constituency in the period before the General Election of June 2001. This paper shows the extent to which political marketing is important at the local as well as the national level, the need for there to be consistency between the product offered by the national party and local parties, and examine the methods by the Labour Party has sought to achieve this. While we proceed with our analysis in terms of marketing, we also argue that the period of product development takes place almost entirely within political parties, so that the role for promotion of products has natural limits. author biography: Robbie Mochrie is a lecturer in economics at Herriot-Watt University. He has extensive experience of working with the voluntary sector, especially as an adviser to the Jubilee 2000 campaign for debt cancellation, and with the credit union movement. He has carried out research into the rational basis of sequential choices, including addictions. Robbie Mochrie is also an active member of the Labour Party, and was that Party’s candidate for the Orkney and Shetland constituency in June 2001. In this paper, he has drawn on that experience to appraise the scope for political marketing in local campaigning. title: best value, partnerships and relationship marketing in local government Author(s) Patricia Rees and Hanne Gardner Email: Abstract: This paper contends that relationship marketing can enhance the nature of partnerships in local government. It considers firstly the development of Best Value, with particular emphasis on partnerships and collaborative working. The development of relationship marketing and its definitions are acknowledged along with a selection of related issues. Two taxonomies of relationship marketing are then considered which appear to have particular relevance to local government. The notion of trust is singled out for attention and possible applications of relationship marketing are then offered. The conclusion presents a synthesis of collaborative working and relationship marketing and a nascent model showing the possible facilitating role of relationship marketing. author biography: Hanne Gardner worked in industrial and consumer marketing, as a marketing manager, for major companies such as Rowntree and Nestle for fifteen years before becoming a senior lecturer at Manchester Metropolitan University. She was born and brought up in Denmark prior to coming to England. She studied at UMIST and gained both her degrees there. He specialist area is marketing and he research interests include retailing and culture as well as political marketing. Patricia Rees acquired her management experience in the timer and publishing trades. She gained an MBA from Manchester Business School and was later a research fellow there studying the human aspects of information technology. She is now a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Management at the Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, specialising in marketing in the not-for-profit sector. She is the co-editor of Machiavelli, Marketing and Management (London: Routledge). title: spinning on the conference circuit: public relations and the selling of party and policy at the british party political conference Author(s) James Stanyer Email: Abstract: Making sure political parties receive comprehensive and favourable media coverage is a full time activity that extends beyond the period of election campaigns. In the era of the permanent campaign the annual autumn conferences of the main political parties represent a publicity opportunity. The undivided media coverage of these events provides a platform for the parties to sell themselves and their policies to a national audience beyond the conference venue, but also present considerable risks. To ensure that they successfully exploit this publicity opportunity the party managers, with the aid of communication experts, both manage the conferences and implement media management strategies. This paper examines how the parties have adapted their conferences to sell themselves and their policies. It highlights the public relations techniques that are employed to ensure that the party policy gains the desired positive news coverage and that coverage of potentially damaging events is minimised. It concludes thinking about the impact of this marketing driven logic on the future of party conferences. author biography: Dr. James Stanyer is a lecturer in Communication at the Centre for Mass Communication Research University of Leicester. He earned his doctorate from the London School of Economics in 1999 and has recently completed a monograph on news production and management at the British party Conferences. He is currently engaged in comparative research on political communication in the US and UK. title: marketing westminster: a 19th centruy Parliament in a 21st century politicalmarket-place Author(s) Mark Fox and Jennifer Lees-Marshment Email: or Abstract: Political marketing has been shown to have significant explanatory and practical value when applied to political parties. It has been used to explain how parties can increase their support amongst the electorate and adapt to new circumstances and conditions. In this paper we apply political marketing to an old, established institution: Westminster. By applying a political marketing framework to Parliament we can see both how limited Westminster is in terms of political marketing development, but also make suggestions for how it might change to become more market-oriented and effective in the 21st century. Changes to Parliamentary practice, activities for its members and the provisions it makes for outsiders to enter and influence it are essential for Parliament to regain some influence. There is certainly the demand for change: current debates on Westminster’s malaise and comparisons with the new Scottish Parliament make discussion of marketing Westminster important and topical. author biography: Mark Fox, is PhD candidate at the University of Sheffield in the Department of Journalism, and is researching communications within Westminster Parliament. Dr. Jennifer Lees-Marshment researches and teaches political marketing. She currently works in the Department of Management Studies at the University of Aberdeen and is moving to Keele University in October 2002. She has published articles in both marketing and political science journals and is author of the book Political marketing and British political parties: the party’s just begun (Manchester University Press 2001). Jennifer is currently working on The Political marketing revolution which studies political marketing and the public services, media, parliament, interest groups, local/devolved government and the monarchy. title: “political marketing vs political packaging” Author(s) Christos Rantavellas Email: Abstract: This paper aims to make clear the distinction between political marketing and political packaging. The main argument is that political packaging is not only a subset of political marketing but also a new version of propaganda that has limited possibilities of being persuasive in modern “political markets” when not being adjusted to the electorate’s needs. The election defeat of the British Labour Party in 1987 is examined to reinforce the argument that successful communication itself is not enough to win an election. The paper challenges claims that treat political marketing process as political packaging and as a threat to democracy. author biography: Christos Rantavellas is a postgraduate student in Media and Communications, London School of Economics and Political Science. He holds a political science degree from the Department of International & European Economic & Political Studies, University of Macedonia, Greece. title: voting, non-voting and consumer buying behaviour: non-voter segmentation (NVS) and the underlining causes of electoral inactivity Author(s) Declan P Bannon Email: Abstract: This paper examines some of the issues and debates surrounding the voting and non-voting of the UK electorate. It attempts to compare and contrast voter behaviour from both a political science perspective and a consumer buying behaviour perspective. In particular, the paper details the output of primary research into non-voter behaviour and attempts to cluster these motivations and rationales into psychographic segments of non-voting behaviour. Issues such as alignment and dealignment, social and inherited values are debated in detail, with particular attention being paid to party identification, issue voting and social determinant theory. The paper both challenges and supports previously presented arguments regarding political issues and voting. In addition, electoral turnout and voter participation are analysed and the consequences for democracy discussed. author biography: Academic, consultant and researcher in Political Marketing. Specialises in Strategic Management and Marketing Theory application to voter behaviour. title: microwards Author(s) Cllr. David S. Berry Email: Abstract: Until recently, Political Marketing operated in a manner similar to the early marketing of common consumer products: with little market differentiation. As long as the political situation in the UK was dominated by the two-party system an faith in that system was high, the overwhelming trend of national issues allowed marketing to be geared to ‘macro-issues’, such as the left/right debate, external enemies (e.g. Falklands War) or family loyalty (i.e. ‘ma faither aye votit’). Because of increasing centralisation of the state, disillusionment with politicians and the rise of the single-issue activist, this no longer suffices. In order to pitch any political message effectively, it must be geared to small areas that exhibit socio-economic cohesion. These are typically smaller than a council ward and are therefore dubbed ‘microwards’. Though several non-contiguous microwards may exhibit similar characteristics, there are usually distinct local issues that distinguish them. Marketing to them effectively requires an ‘issue grid’ approach. author biography: David Berry received a B.Sc (Hons) Physics from Edinburgh in 1971 and spent the next twenty years working in computer development and marketing in London, Germany and California. Back in Scotland since 1993, he became involved in political organisation in the SNP. He was twice an election agent, was a candidate for the Scottish Parliament and has written several internal papers on organisation. Since 1999 he has been an elected member of the SNP’s National Council and this year was appointed to the SNP’s National Organising Committee and elected Vice-Convenor of the Association of Nationalist Councillors. He currently represents North Berwick East on East Lothian Council. Title: mps and web technologies – an untapped opportunity? Author(s) Nigel Jackson Email: Abstract: The relationship between MPs and their constituents changes over time, but what impact has the Internet had on this? Have MPs embraced e-marketing to open up effective two way communication or have their use of web technologies not progressed beyond ‘shovelware’ – viewing their websites as an electronic brochure? By concentrating on how and why MPs use their websites this paper considers whether they have fully understood and utilised this new medium. Key questions include, are their websites ‘sticky’, interactive, non-linear, promoting a brand, a means of creating a targeted message, and why do MPs see their websites as producer, and not user-led? Web technologies open up a whole range of new questions for MPs, and a result many are resisting change. Beyond a few pioneering MPs there has not been effective adoption of the Internet in improving their relationship with constituents. This is in part a question of resources, but it is also a result of not learning and adapting the lessons already learnt by the commercial sector. author biography: After an initial career in campaigning and parliamentary lobbying, moved into marketing in the charity, agency and commercial sectors. I have just finished a PGCE (Post-16) course and this, my first paper, originated from a discussion with students about the role of MPs and how new technology might change this. title: deliver this: benefits and incentives for political party members Author(s) Sue Granik Email: Abstract: This paper discusses two key questions for political party managers: what do party members consider the benefits of membership to be, and which of these motivate participation in party activities? It uses analytical frameworks from the disciplines of political science, marketing, non-profit studies, and organisational behaviour to identify the purposive and solidary incentives potentially available to party members. Results of an empirical study in a political party setting are presented and discussed. Two purposive and five solidary potential benefits of party membership are identified. There is reliable evidence that members perceive the opportunity to share and act upon their values as a benefit of membership, and that socialisation, job satisfaction and esteem benefits also accrue to members. Values motivations, socialisation, job satisfaction are further identified as antecedents of activism, alongside protective motivations. Implications for political party management and for further academic research are presented and discussed. author biography: Sue Granik is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Industrial Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She holds an MA in Marketing from the University of Westminster. Her research interests include consumer behaviour in membership associations, and marketing and organisational behaviour in non-profit organisations. title: marketing irish political parties: The case of Fianna Fáil Author(s) Josiane Cotrim Macieira Email: Abstract: This paper applies Jennifer Lees-Marshment’s Political Marketing theory to the Irish political party Fianna Fáil. Lees-Marshment’s theory sustains that political parties can be product, sales and marketing oriented. This paper demonstrates how through its history Fianna Fáil evolved from product to sale to market orientation in the quest to win elections. Although tested only on British parties, particularly the Conservative Party, Lees-Marshment’s theory seems, however, to apply well to this particular Irish political party. The present work applies that theory to three successful Fianna Fáil campaigns – 1932, 1977 and 1997. These three specific elections were chosen because they provide a balanced illustration of the party electoral strategy evolution throughout its history. author biography: Josiane Cotrim Macieira is a Brazilian journalist and MA graduate on Political Communication at Dublin City University. She worked as a journalist in Brasilia and as a Media Communication Analyst during political campaigns. She also worked as Media Relations Officer at the Canadian Embassy in Brasilia. Area of interest includes: Discourse Analysis, Semiotics, Electoral Process, Political Marketing, Irish Politics and Political Posters. title: political marketing: More than Persuasive Techniques. “An Organisational Perspective” Author(s) Helene P.M. Johansen Email: Abstract: This paper examines the emerging practices and literature of what has over the last 10-15 years been termed ‘political marketing’. It attempts, through an investigation of underlying theoretical frameworks, to shed light on the impact and implications of this ‘new’ phenomenon. Specifically, it examines whether the above-mentioned practices can rightfully be seen as transforming political parties into professional market-oriented organisations, as have been claimed in some recent academic studies. It does to by introducing and examining an increasingly strong-positioned marketing paradigm, service/relationship marketing. This paradigm’s strong focus on the organisational perspective of marketing is highlighted, and its promising features with regard to politics and democracy, constitutes the key argument of this paper. The whole investigation is furthermore linked to contemporary concern about an alleged ‘crisis in democracy’, resulting from a decline in civic engagement, decreasing voter turnouts and declining party-membership. author biography: First degree in Economics and specialisation in marketing, NMH, Oslo, Norway. Additional education in Psychology and Public Relations, University of Oslo. MSc in Media and Communications, LSE, London (2001). 20 years of business experience – latest; 3 years as a director for a media company, Oslo, Norway (1997-2000). title: time to deliver: Why Political Marketing needs to move beyond the campaign Author(s) Dr. Jennifer Lees-Marshment and Professor Angus Laing Email: Abstract: Political marketing has long been about communication and only recently has it been accepted it can influence behaviour before the campaign: now we suggest it needs to move beyond the campaign. Party politicians are using marketing to inform policy design and making promises of outputs that reflect voter demands. The task they then face is to actually deliver on those promises – hence why political marketing needs to move focus to what happens long after the campaign is over in government. This leads them into other areas of the political system, however, most notably the health and education services, but also parliaments, civil service and local government. This raises significant questions about whether delivery can really be achieved. Literature from both political science and services marketing suggest that in the market-oriented, delivery-focused approach is subject to many difficulties because of inherent problems in the system. It is therefore time for political marketing scholarship and debate to deliver; to offer more relevant and timely advice to practising political marketers by turning attention to what happens after the campaign. author biography: Dr. Jennifer Lees-Marshment researches and teaches political marketing. She currently works in the Department of Management Studies at the University of Aberdeen and is moving to Keele University in October 2002. She has published articles in both marketing and political science journals and is author of the book Political marketing and British political parties: the party’s just begun (Manchester University Press 2001). Jennifer is currently working on The Political marketing revolution which studies political marketing and the public services, media, parliament, interest groups, local/devolved government and the monarchy. Professor Angus Laing holds the Beneficial Bank Chair of Marketing at the Open University Business School. His research interest lies in marketing in the professional service sector. Having published on the delivery of financial services, his current research focus is on service delivery and marketing in the public sector and professional services. In this field he has published in a range of academic and professional journals as well as contributed to texts on professional services marketing. Alongside such research activities he is actively involved in consultancy work with a range of professional service organisations. title: american political marketing: George W. Bush and the Republican Party Author(s) Dr. Jonathan Knuckey and Dr Jennifer Lees-Marshment Email: or Abstract: Political marketing is an international phenomenon, with parties all over the world using marketing techniques and approaches. Research in Britain suggests major parties are moving towards the market-oriented model, making a comprehensive use of political marketing. In this paper we seek to examine whether political marketing is as advanced in the United States as in the United Kingdom, focusing on George W. Bush and the Republican Party in the 2000 election. Analysis finds that Bush and the Republicans followed the market-oriented party model during the 2000 presidential election campaign to a significant extent. US political marketing would therefore appear to be as comprehensive as that found in the UK. However, the study also uncovers new questions for the political marketing approach. Bush’s victory was famously narrow, which may be a consequence of the competition also following a market-oriented strategy – so what does happen if both major parties adopt a market-oriented approach? A second issue is that the very sue of a market-oriented approach – following voter demands – may be unpopular, and politicians like Bush are increasingly attempting to deny using focus-groups. Comparative studies of party marketing help to highlight the world-wide use of political marketing but also throw up new issues which political marketing scholarship needs to address for parties in all countries. author biography: Dr Jonathan Knuckey is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Central Florida. His research interests are in voting behaviour, elections and political parties, with particular emphasis on southern partisan change. His research has been published in Polity, The American Review of Politics, Social Science Quarterly and Party Politics. Currently Dr. Knuckey is working on a National Science Foundation sponsored survey of grassroots party activists in the American South. Dr. Jennifer Lees-Marshment researches and teaches political marketing. She currently works in the Department of Management Studies at the University of Aberdeen and is moving to Keele University in October 2002. She has published articles in both marketing and political science journals and is author of the book Political marketing and British political parties: the party’s just begun (Manchester University Press 2001). Jennifer is currently working on The Political marketing revolution which studies political marketing and the public services, media, parliament, interest groups, local/devolved government and the monarchy. title: “marketing political soap: A political marketing view of selling candidates like soap, of electioneering as a ritual, and of electoral military analogies” Author(s) Alex Marland Email: Abstract: This paper examines three common political expressions and ideas – the selling of candidates like soap, the dismissal of traditional electioneering as a ritual, and the use of military analogies in elections – from a marketing perspective. First, I trace the origins of the political soap expression and then argue that, rather than being “sold” like a product such as soap, candidates are instead “marketed” like a service provider such as a real estate agent. I then explain that campaign rituals have a legitimate marketing function provided that electors, and not just political actors, are meaningfully incorporated into the ritual. Finally I illustrate that military analogies in elections have increasing relevance given the classic military strategy used by commercial marketers. Together, these examples suggest that the application of marketing to politics may require the rethinking of ingrained electoral jargon and concepts. author biography: Alex Marland is a PhD student with the Department of Politics & International Relations at Lancaster University. He is preparing a dissertation examining marketing in Canadian constituency campaigns and is interested in election and marketing strategy. Previously, Alex managed research projects ranging from airline branding to government tobacco policy with organisations in Ottawa and St. John’s. He holds political science degrees from Carleton University and Memorial University of Newfoundland. title: Marketing British Political Parties in 2001: an impossible challenge? Author(s) Dr Jennifer Lees-Marshment and Dr John Bartle Email: Abstract: Previous analysis of British major party behaviour up to 1997 established that they use political marketing and the market-oriented party model succeeds in winning the election. This paper extends the analysis to the 2001UK election to further test this argument. This paper applies the market-oriented party model to the 2001 UK general election, focusing on the two major parties, Labour and Conservative. Although it finds that the winning party, Labour, undoubtedly followed the market-oriented model more effectively and thus the link between political marketing party behaviour and election result appears strong, the paper also finds that both parties experienced significant difficulties in trying to follow the MOP approach. By analysing their behaviour between 1997 and 2001, using all stages of the model, we find that Labour’s greatest test was delivery and the Conservatives attempt to become market-oriented was thwarted by internal opposition. The paper therefore poses the question as to whether there are inevitable challenges in implementing the MOP model that no party could ever avoid, thus suggesting some weaknesses in the model, or whether political marketing scholarship could find answers to the challenges they faced. author biography: Dr. Jennifer Lees-Marshment researches and teaches political marketing. She currently works in the Department of Management Studies at the University of Aberdeen and is moving to Keele University in October 2002. She has published articles in both marketing and political science journals and is author of the book Political marketing and British political parties: the party’s just begun (Manchester University Press 2001). Jennifer is currently working on The Political marketing revolution which studies political marketing and the public services, media, parliament, interest groups, local/devolved government and the monarchy. Dr John Bartle is Lecturer at the University of Essex in the Department of Government. He is co-editor Political Communications: Why Labour won the General Election of 1997 and Political Communications Transformed: from Morrison to Mandelson. Has authored articles in The British Journal of Political Science, Political Studies and Electoral Studies. Research interests in British and American voting behaviour, partisanship, political awareness, the effect of leaders’ personalities on electoral outcomes. Other research interests include political communications, British political parties, British constitutional reform and the relationship between Labour and the Liberal Democrats. title: a study on the determination of voters views of political marketing applications in turkey Author(s) Ahmet Tan Email:, Abstract: Although political marketing is an old concept in the world’s literature of marketing, it is a very new concept in Turkey. The number of studies on political marketing have recently increased. In this study the opinion of voters in 11 provinces are analysed. According to the voters the most important characteristics of political parties were their ideologies and the honesty of party leaders and their parliament members. It was also determined that voter’s political preference was deeply influenced by moderate promises and ideologies of political parties. author biography: The author is currently a lecturer in marketing at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey. He received his Ph.D. degree in political marketing. He has a lot of publications about political marketing. He has been teaching principles of marketing and marketing research classes. title: More Haste, Less Freed: Some Critiques of Market Models in edemocracy Author(s) Patrick Butler, Trinity College Dublin and Neil Collins, National University of Ireland (Cork) Email:,, Abstract Politics is central to both political and public sector marketing. The distinction made between them in the literature is unhelpful. It is reflected in NPM and recent ICT-based developments in eGovernment and eDemocracy. In this context, three central marketing applications are reviewed here. The assumptions in marketing that (i) rapid responses to consumer concerns, (ii) the extension of choice and customisation in product development, and (iii) the application of market research techniques enhance customer welfare are considered in turn. It is revealed in this analysis that in the political context, responding rapidly to public opinion is not necessarily a sound reaction; extending choice and customisation of products may not best serve public welfare, and applying market research techniques may not provide for the best system for policy decisions. The features of liberal representative democracy, particularly the role of deliberation, informed assent and accountability, have been neglected. Speed of response has been emphasised to the cost of democratic filters and checks on public opinion; enhanced choice, while enabled by mass customisation, presents problems of social fragmentation; and the application of market research is no substitute for political discourse and engagement. Author biography Patrick Butler is a Lecturer in the School of Business, TCD, Dublin, Ireland; Neil Collins is professor and head of the Department of Government, UCC, Cork, Ireland. title: Marketing the message or the messenger? The New Zealand Labour Party 1990-2002 Author(s) Chris Rudd, Department of Political Studies, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: Abstract: Marketing the Message or the Messenger? The New Zealand Labour Party 1990-2002 At the 1990 election the New Zealand Labour Party suffered one of the heaviest election defeats in its history. Less than a decade later the party had become the largest party in parliament; a feat it repeated at the most recent election in 2002. This paper uses Lees-Marshment’s political marketing theory to analyse developments within the Labour Party over this period with particular respect to party organisation, leadership and policies. It tentatively concludes that successfully marketing the messenger (party and leader) was crucially important in the turnaround in the party’s electoral fortunes. Author biography: Dr Chris Rudd is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political Studies at the University of Otago, Dunedin New Zealand. He is co-editor of The Political Economy of New Zealand and has published articles on New Zealand politics and the media. Currently he is working on an edited volume on political communications in New Zealand. title: Why Politics Needs Marketing. Author(s) Roger Mortimore, MORI Email: Abstract This paper examines the survey evidence for the low standing of politics, politicians and political institutions in the mind of the British public, and discusses its consequences and some of the ways in which effective political marketing might alleviate the situation. Disillusionment with politics not only hampers the political parties in putting across their competing electoral messages, with low turnouts among the consequences, but also prevents institutions which are in the political sphere or seen as having a political aspect, including many public services, from serving the public to the best of their capacity. Yet this disillusionment seems not to stem from apathy, from indifference to the way the country is governed or from any other societal malaise independent of the political system, but from a specific disconnection from current politics, seen as being irrelevant to and perhaps even subversive of the common good. Present public opinion towards the parties in Britain, and towards politicians in general, is predominantly negative; politicians are distrusted, to a considerably greater extent than can be explained solely by their bad press. However, there are clear signs that poor communications (the aspect of political marketing most easily susceptible to measurement through survey research) might be making a substantial contribution to causing this negative image, and that improvements in this sphere might be made. Author biography: Dr Roger Mortimore is an Associate Director of MORI and Senior Political Analyst, concentrating on political and constitutional research as well as on opinion polling methodology. He was extensively involved with MORI’s election opinion polling in 1997 and 2001, in particular with the ITN exit polls. Prior to joining MORI 1993, he was researching the electoral system and the Boundary Commissions at University College, Oxford; he also worked as research assistant to David Butler for the Nuffield College study of the British General Election of 1992. He was co-author with Dick Leonard of Elections in Britain – A Voter’s Guide (Palgrave, 2001) and with Robert M Worcester of Explaining Labour’s Landslide (Politico’s Books, 1999), and of Explaining Labour’s Second Landslide (Politico’s Books, 2001), and co-editor with John Bartle and Simon Atkinson of Political Communications: The British General Election Campaign of 2001 (Frank Cass, forthcoming 2002). title: The state of political marketing in Canadian federal elections Author(s) Alex Marland Email: Abstract For all the attention it has received in the United States and United Kingdom, political marketing has yet to be examined in Canada. Various components – notably political advertising and marketing research – have been studied for decades but not as part of a broader electoral phenomenon. Moreover, few insights exist about political marketing at the constituency level in parliamentary systems. This paper addresses those gaps by outlining some initial findings for further study obtained through depth interviews with Canadian political consultants and constituency campaign managers. It is explained that the term “political marketing” is a relatively unfamiliar one to the handful of Canadian political consultants and that Canadian election strategists are discriminating in the American-style marketing tactics they adopt. Although marketing research is used for national and constituency campaign strategy development, this is not the case among the many weak campaigns, whose promotional decisions are made spontaneously during the campaign proper. The conclusion is drawn that most Canadian campaigns are increasingly professionalized, but political marketing is currently practiced only by major parties at the national level and in their winnable constituency campaigns. author biography: Alex Marland is a PhD student with the Department of Politics & International Relations at Lancaster University. He is preparing a dissertation examining marketing in Canadian constituency campaigns and is interested in election and marketing strategy. Previously, Alex managed research projects ranging from airline branding to government tobacco policy with organisations in Ottawa and St. John’s. He holds political science degrees from Carleton University and Memorial University of Newfoundland. practitioner papers TITLE: Political Marketing – A Practical Perspective PRESENTER: Steven Lawther, Polling Co-ordinator, Scottish Labour Party OUTLINE: There has been much discussion about the application of modern marketing techniques in political campaigning. Political parties in the USA and United Kingdom are increasingly using a marketing approach to communicate their message to the electorate. There has also been a rise in the use of commercial research methods like opinion polling and focus groups to understand voters and target messages effectively. This presentation will outline a practical perspective of political campaigning and the political marketing process based on the experience of the 2001 general election campaign. It will offer a unique insight into the 2001 campaign from inside the Labour headquarters in Scotland. It will discuss how the Labour Party approached the campaign, how the campaign message was developed and the experience of the actual campaign in Scotland. In any election a political party must present their case to the electorate in a clear and simple way that is understandable and relevant. How parties choose to communicate with the electorate is therefore critical. The Labour Party sought to communicate their message in 2001 through the use of a variety of techniques including advertising, direct mail, campaign leaflets, party election broadcasts and a range of other marketing techniques. This presentation will show examples of some of the methods used including the main poster and press advertising. It will discuss the thinking behind using certain techniques and specific executions. It will also explore the role research played in the election campaign and attempt to dispel some of the myths surrounding the use of focus groups, opinion polling and other research methods. PRESENTER BIOGRAPHY: Steven Lawther currently works for the Scottish Labour Party and has responsibility for the Party’s political research and marketing. He has direct experience of political marketing and campaigning in Scotland having worked in Labour’s Scottish headquarters during the general election campaigns in 1992 and 2001. He has gained extensive experience working in a variety of research and marketing organisations over the last ten years including roles in the public sector, commercial market research and the academic sector. During this time he has been involved in co-ordinating major research projects on behalf of Government departments, Local Councils, Health Boards and a range of other organisations across the United Kingdom. Steven has a BA from the University of Stirling, a Masters in Social Research from the University of Edinburgh and has been a Labour Party member for 12 years. CONTACT DETAILS: Steven Lawther, Tel: 0141 572 6904, Home: 0131 346 0712, Mobile: 07976 815335, Fax: 0141 572 2566, E:mail: _____________________________________ TITLE: A community development approach to modernising local government at Aberdeen PRESENTERS: Dave Valentine and Dave Kilgour, Principal Development Officers, Aberdeen City Council, Office of the Chief Executive. OUTLINE: Our approach to ‘political marketing’ emphasises participation rather than advertising. We are working to develop a strategic approach across agencies that both supports citizens and community organisations to be involved in decision-making and equips public services to effectively engage with citizens and communities. This presentation will cover: • Our development of a strategic approach to citizen and community participation in local decision-making. • How we are building community engagement in community planning. • The importance of responding to community aspirations and priorities • Our attitude to issues such as representative v participative democracy, professionalism, the democratic deficit, the credibility of community organisations and equality/social inclusion. • The importance of offering engagement at a number of different levels • Some examples of methods we have used to support interaction between citizens/communities and public authorities. CONTACT DETAILS: email and Dave Valentine, Principal Development Officer, Office of the Chief Executive, Community Development, Aberdeen City Council, St Nicholas House, Broad Street, Aberdeen, AB10 1GZ, Tel: 01224 523036, FAX : 01224 522832, EMail : TITLE: Branding Politics PRESENTER: Christian Scheucher OUTLINE: I am involved as a political consultant in the reelection campaign of a key Gouvenor in Austria. My role is “mastermind” of the campaign (sounds cool…). I am responsible for all external aspects of the brand i. e. the Gouvenor. – Brand building, resp. brand management – Brand Writing, Visuals – directing all research and advertising – media back grounding (making the campaign a story itself). I think that it might be interesting for the participants – to get live insights into a current campaign – in a country and campaign that deals with a figure like Jörg Haider (but I am not going to talk about him) and – to see what I mean and do in terms of branding a politician. There is not much around of that in Europe. I am using branding techniques and brand thinking advising this race. At the time of the conference the campaign is in phase 2. Election day is in mid October 2003. Christian Scheucher Consulting CONTACT DETAILS: Email: PRESENTER BIOGRAPHY: Christian Scheucher is a political consultant and a public affairs consultant to international corporations. He was a strategist in 5 major political campaigns and advises candidates in Austria and CEE. His corporate work includes clients in retail, medical systems, telecom and pharmaceuticals. Mr Scheucher is a graduate of Harvard, the University of Vienna and was a visitor at the Graduate School of Political Management in Washington, D.C. in its early days. He is the European Editor of the Journal of Public Affairs, a Board Member of the new Journal of Political Marketing and has published about two dozen pieces on politics, branding and consulting. He teaches at Donau University Krems and is an occasional commentator on TV and Radio. TITLE: CONSULTATION COSTS! CONSULTATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: THE ABERDEENSHIRE EXPERIENCE PRESENTER: Alan Campbell, Information & Research Manager, Aberdeenshire Council CONTACT DETAILS: Email: OUTLINE: Theme How one rural Scottish local authority has used ‘continuous consultation’ to get feedback on user demand and so in turn improve services. Introduction: • Setting the scene: North East Scotland profile and characteristics of Aberdeenshire Council i.e. area based structure, no one dominant political party, city-region concept. • Why we embarked upon consultation with our residents Residents surveys: conduct • Process: 2000 -2002 • Methodologies used and response rates Results • Attitudes to Council performance (by theme) • Specific ‘client’ groups: business community and their perceptions (often different from residents); includes the Council as a ‘customer’ • Specific themes: contact handling Issues • Are there any specific issues in terms of such surveys for a local authority as opposed to a private company? • Interaction between elected members and findings of such surveys. • How to use survey findings. • Relationships between client and survey contractor Where do we go from here? • More surveys, more results, more expectations? • Is the message getting through? PRESENTER BIOGRAPHY: Originally form Glasgow, Alan has a degree in geography, is a member of the Royal Town Planning Institute and the Institute of Leadership and Management. Having started out researching in the Dredging industry, Alan has now spent most of his working life in local government in North East Scotland, initially in monitoring/forecasting the local economy, but since the last local government re-organisation in 1996, has performed a wider corporate management role covering Best Value, Performance Management and resident/employee surveys. He is also a Lead Officer within COSLA in dialogue on statistical issues with the Scottish Executive. TITLE: Political But Not Partisan: Marketing Parliaments And Their Members PRESENTER: Barry K Winetrobe, Parliamentary & Constitutional Consultant, formerly House of Commons and Scottish Parliament Research Services OUTLINE: Parliaments are complex institutions. They are forums where strong, very public, and often adversarial political debates take place, yet they themselves are neutral institutions. For those in charge of a parliament – political leaders, parliamentary officials, presiding officers, committee chairs and so on – these factors make marketing complex. Can the institution be marketed apart from the political battles within it? To what extent is the continuing institution ‘responsible’ for the transitory political events occurring within it, and even for the ‘extra-parliamentary’ activities of its members? Should a parliament market itself pro-actively as a key governance institution, or is it enough for it simply to ‘inform and explain’ its structure, procedures, practices and events? Who speaks for the parliament, in promotional terms? Should officials ever do more than ‘inform and explain’, and leave the ‘politics’ to the politicians’? These questions are examined by looking at the UK and Scottish Parliaments, as two versions of a ‘Westminster Model’ parliament, to discover what factors, structural and operational, are relevant to the marketing of a parliament. Though any parliament, like any institution, can ‘inform and explain’ and even promote itself in a basic sense, it can only market itself effectively if it has a clear sense not only of the ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’ and ‘how’ questions, but also the more difficult ‘why’ and ‘who for’ questions. The Scottish Parliament, created with a distinctive ethos, thereby has both the necessary autonomy and the clear sense of purpose on which to base any promotion of itself and even of its Members. On the other hand, the rather late and relatively timid steps now being taken at Westminster are not a product of bureaucratic inertia, but of a fundamental absence of these necessary components of autonomy and purpose. This distinction can be seen, for example, in • the roles of the Scottish Parliament’s Presiding Officer and the Commons Speaker, and of the Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body and the House of Commons Commission; • the absence of a ‘Leader of the House’ in the Scottish Parliament, and • parliamentary involvement in the representational roles of MSPs (including the novel complexity of constituency and regional list MSPs) and MPs. CONTACT DETAILS: Email Title: Case Study Marketing the University of Aberdeen Authors: Lori Manders Email: Abstract: In the highly competitive environment which is the reality in the provision of Higher Education, the implementation of a strategic marketing strategy has been key to the university achieving the second highest increase in undergraduate student applications in the UK (20%) in 2001. The University’s ambition to join the top twenty universities in Britain has also been achieved; the Times league table in 2002 ranked Aberdeen as 19th in the UK and 3rd in Scotland. At the same time our success in attracting overseas undergraduate students has seen a 52% rise in students from outside the UK. The key marketing objective has been to develop an integrated communications strategy combining a variety of forms of communication to provide clarity, consistency and maximum impact through the seamless integration of all messages. It is focussed on the Scottish target market, but does not exclude the wider national market. In tandem a customer relationship management strategy has been implemented to allow personal service and efficient communication in a cost effective and timely manner. The marketing campaign communicates the strength of the university through key benefits:- • Key academic and non-academic strengths • High employability rates per degree • Flexibility of degrees and entrance routes • Financial and fee information • Promotion of the city itself • Entry and support systems for mature students The Marketing function included pre and post application activity as follows: Market Research Advertising Direct mail Public Relations Open days, parents evenings, visits to the University School visits Exhibitions/fairs International visits Internal communications Author Biography Lori Manders – Director of Marketing University of Aberdeen Lori Manders (34) became the first Director of Marketing at the University of Aberdeen in 2001, this new position is the first of its kind to be introduced in an ancient Scottish university Previously Director of Student Recruitment and Admissions, her brief covered home and overseas student recruitment and admissions. In 2001 the University increased its applications by 20% representing the 2nd highest increase in the UK. The overall student intake increased by 16%. Incorporating her student recruitment and admissions functions, she now provides strategic leadership and management of all marketing and other activities that have an impact on the University’s corporate image. Key responsibilities include corporate communications, the organisation of large-scale university events, media buying, and community relations. Lori joined the University in 1998 from the Health Service, she is a graduate of Robert Gordon University and is a member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing. She is on the Grampian Local Advisory Board of Careers Scotland, is a board member of the Scottish UCAS Standing Group and Careers Scotland. She is a Trustee of the Aberdeen International Youth Festival.