In particular, the ‘Lees-Marshment model’ of product, sales and market-oriented parties originally published in Political Marketing and British Political Parties and articles in 2001 has been used in several ways:


(a). Utilised as the framework in other political scientists’ research:

  • Giving voters what they want: Party orientation perceptions and preferences in the British electorate’ by Robert Johns and Heinz Brandenburg Party politics 2012.
  • Confronting EU unpopularity: the contribution of political marketing’ by Pierre Balestrini and Paul Gamble in Contemporary Politics, Volume 17, Number 1, March 2011 , pp. 89-107
  • Use of Political Marketing in Reinventing The Conservatives – How The Conservatives Became a More Market-oriented Party by Pavel Heczko, (2010), LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • ‘Political Marketing Canadian Style? The Conservative Party and the 2006 Federal Election’ Canadian Journal of Communication (2007 33/1) by Daniel J Paré and Flavia Berger


(b) Subject to debate and critique in political science:

  • In the article ‘Political marketing in the Greek context: does market orientation exist?’ by Iordanis Kotzaivazoglou, International Review on Public and Non profit Marketing, 2011, 8(1): 41-5
  • In the article ‘Limitations and implications of product-oriented, sales-oriented and market-oriented political parties: evidence for public affairs’ by Robert P. Ormrod, Journal of Public Affairs, published online 20th October 2011
  • In the book Mediating politics: newspapers, radio, television and the internet by Neil Washbourne (McGraw Hill, Open university press 2010), pp 47-48
  • Within the book Communicating Politics in the Twenty-first Century by Karen Sanders (Palgrave 2008), with specific discussion in chapter 2 ‘Leaders and the market-oriented process’ pp 38-40
  • In an article ‘Political market orientation and its commercial cousin: Close family or distant relatives?’. By Robert Ormrod Journal of Political Marketing, 2007, volume 6 no 2-3, pp 69-90
  • In the UK PSA journal Politics – see Ormrod/Lees-Marshment Politics, 2006, May, Volume 26/2.
  • In the article ‘Ideal types in political marketing’ by Vojtech Ripka Czech Journal of Political Science 2004, 4, pp. 439-447


(c) Cited and used in other disciplines:

  • Business: in the article Capitalizing On Infinitesimal Calculus In Political Marketing’, Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume 11 Issue 5 (April) 2011 by Rowland E Worlu (2011), ( Print ISSN: 0975-5853
  • Economics: in the book Introductory Econometrics for undergraduates: A Student’s Guide to the Basics by Elia Kacapyr (2011) M.E.Sharpe c p 20, 22, 41-2.
  • Law: in the book UK Election law: a critical examination by Bob Watt, 2006, pp 19-23
  • Medicine: ‘Learning to be NICE: Technology assessment as marketing at the National Institute for Clinical Excellence,’ by Duckenfield, Mark; Journal of Medical Marketing, 3/ 2, 2003, pp. 131-144
  • Urban studies: ‘UK health action zones: Political accountability and political marketing – perspectives from the South West’ by Michael Cole and Lesley Cotterill, Urban Studies, 42/3 2005, pp 397 – 416;
  • Social work: ‘Market Orientation in Social Services: An Empirical Study of Motivating and Hindering Factors Among Israeli Social Workers by Amnon Boehm, Eran Vigoda-Gadot & Nurit Segev (2011), Administration in Social Work, 35:2, 138-160, p. 140.